Geodesic Domes

Fuller invented the Geodesic Dome in the late 1940s to demonstrate some ideas about housing and “energetic-synergetic geometry which he had developed during WWII. This invention built on his two decade old quest to improve the housing of humanity. It represents a brilliant demonstration of his synergetics principles; and in the right circumstances it could solve some of the pressing housing problems of today (a housing crisis which Fuller predicted back in 1927).

[From Robert T. Bowers paper on Domes last posted to GEODESIC in 1989.]

A geodesic dome is a type of structure shaped like a piece of a sphere or a ball. This structure is comprised of a complex network of triangles that form a roughly spherical surface. The more complex the network of triangles, the more closely the dome approximates the shape of a true sphere[sic].

By using triangles of various sizes, a sphere can be symmetrically divided by thirty-one great circles. A great circle is the largest circle that can be drawn around a sphere, like the lines of latitude[ED: he means longitude]around the earth, or the equator. Each of these lines divide the sphere into two halves, hence the term geodesic, which is from the Latin meaning “earth dividing.

The dome is a structure with the highest ratio of enclosed area to external surface area, and in which all structural members are equal contributors to the whole. There are many sizes of triangles in a geodesic [ED: dome], depending on the frequency of subdivision of the underlying spherical polyhedron. The cross section of a geodesic [ED: dome] approximates a great-circle line.

Well, the structures weigh less when completed because of the air-mass inside the dome. When its heated warmer than the outside air, it has a net lifting effect (like a hot-air balloon).

This is almost unnoticeable in smaller structures, like houses, but, as with other things about geodesics, being as theyre based upon spheres, the effect increases geometrically with size. So youd be able to notice it in a sports stadium, and a sphere more than a half mile in diameter would be able to float in the air with only a 1 degree F difference in temperature!

Underground concrete domes are rather interesting

1) They can use chemical sealing and landscaping to avoid leakage problems associated with wooden domes.

2) They areextremelystrong. Britz[seeDome Referencesfor more on Britz]has obtained extremely low insurance rates on his structures. The insurance company tested one building by driving a D8 Caterpillar tractor on top of the house!

3) Theres little hassle involved in dealing with materials that were really standardized for use building boxes. The only specialized tools are the forms, everything else can easily be used off the shelf.

4) They can be quite aesthetic. Britz has shown that you can build developments where the houses cant really see each other.

5) They arecheapand easy to heat, cheap enough that you can build a much larger structure than you might using conventional housing and use standard room divider technology to split the thing up into room.

The following is quoted from “Scientific American in the September 1989 issue. (Pages 102-104)

Surpassing the Buck(Geometry decrees a new dome)

“I started with the universe–as an organization of energy systems of which all our experiences and possible experiences are only local instances. I could have ended up with a pair of flying slippers. -R. Buckminster Fuller

Buckminster Fuller never did design a pair of flying slippers. Yet he became famous for an invention that seemed almost magical: the geodesic dome, an assemblage of triangular trusses that grows stronger as it grows larger. Some dispute that Fuller originated the geodesic dome; inScience a la Mode, physicist and author Tony Rothman argues that the Carl Zeiss Optical Company built and patented the first geodesic dome in Germany during the 1920s. Nevertheless, in the wake of Fullers 1954 patent, thousands of domes sprung up as homes and civic centers–even as caps on oil-storage tanks. Moreover, in a spirit that Fuller would have heartily applauded, hundreds of inventors have tinkered with dome designs, looking for improved versions. Now one has found a way to design a completely different sort of dome.

In May, J. Craig Yacoe, a retired engineer, won patent number 4,825,602 for a “geotangent dome, made up of pentagons and hexagons, that promises to be more versatile that its geodesic predecessor. Since Fullers dome is based on a sphere, cutting it anywhere but precisely along its equator means that the triangles at the bottom will tilt inward or outward. In contrast, Yacoes dome, which has a circular base, follows the curve of an ellipsoid. Builders can consequently pick the dimensions they need, Yacoe Says. And his design ensures that the polygons at the base of his dome always meet the ground at right angles, making it easier to build than a geodesic dome. He hopes these features will prove a winning combination.

Although Fuller predicted that a million domes would be built by the mid-1980s, the number is closer to 50,000. Domes are nonetheless still going up in surprising places. A 265-foot-wide geodesic dome is part of a new pavilion at Walt Disney Worlds Epcot Center in Florida. A bright blue 360-foot-high dome houses a shopping center in downtown Ankara, Turkey. Stockholm, Sweden, boasts a 280-foot-high dome enclosing a new civic center.

Dome design is governed by some basic principles. A sphere can be covered with precisely 20 equilateral triangles; for a geodesic dome, those triangles are carved into smaller ones of different sizes. But to cover a sphere or ellipsoid with various sizes of pentagons and hexagons required another technique, Yacoe says.

Yacoe eventually realized that he could build a dome of polygonal panels guided by the principle that one point on each side of every panel had to be tangent to (or touch) an imaginary circumscribed dome. With the assistance of William E. Davis, a retired mathematician, he set out to describe the problem mathematically.

They began with a ring of at least six congruent pentagons wrapped around the equator of an imaginary ellipse. The task: find the lengths of the sides and the interior angles of the polygons that form the next ring.

To do so for an ellipsoidal dome, they imagined inscribing an ellipse inside each polygon. Each ellipse touched another at one point; at these points, the sides of the polygons would also be tangent to a circumscribed ellipsoid. But where, precisely, should the points be located? Yacoe and Davis guessed, then plugged the numbers into equations that describe ellipses and intersecting planes. Aided by a personal computer, they methodically tested many guesses until the equations balanced. Using the tangent points, Yacoe and Davis could then calculate the dimensions and interior angles of the corresponding polygons and so build the next ring of the dome.

After receiving the patent, Yacoe promptly set up a consulting firm to license his patents. He says dome-home builders have shown considerable interest, as has Spitz, Inc., a maker of planetariums located near Yacoe in Chadds Ford, Pa. Yacoe has also proposed that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration consider a geotangent structure as part of a space station. -E.C.

(Alan Semon) writes:>

I was once interested in the idea of living in a geodesic dome home and,>

to the best of my recollection, these are some of the advantages:>

1. Heating and cooling the home become more efficient due to the fact>

that there are fewer (even no) corners where heat may be trapped. The>

overall air flow in a dome is substantially better than in a>

conventionally constructed home (straight walls and such).>

…and there is less surface area per square foot of living space = less heat loss.>

2. Many dome home designs allow the option of using larger lumber for>

the dome. 2x6s or 2x8s instead of the usual 2x4s, although this is>

an option in ANY home, it seems to be more commonly done in dome home>

construction.>

Although for many areas of the US, there is no financial advantage to using 2×6 construction. A dome with R-14 throughout can outperform a well insulated conventional house of comparable S/F.>

3. For those solar minded people, the placement of the solar collectors>

on the “roof is less critical due to the curved nature of the top of>

the structure.>

4. The inherent strength of the dome makes it suitable for either>

earth-bermed or even earth covered construction techniques. In the case>

of more common construction techniques, the structural members>

dimensions usually need to be completely reworked in order to carry the>

extra weight.>

5. Hell, they _LOOK_ pretty neat! This might be a problem in certain>

areas which one of those laws which say that all homes in an area _MUST_>

conform to certain guidelines concerning their architecture (bummer,>

huh? :-)). -jg

[Based in part on a Brewer Eddy post]

The curved walls in a dome require either custom furnishings, 100% prefab design, or an “open spaces approach. Each of these would be an advantage or disadvantage in one persons eyes or anothers.

Mass producing domes is easy, greatly reduces the cost and could solve many of the housing shortage problems worldwide (especially emergency housing needs).

I have a dome and tried to find solar panels to be installed on the dome. I had no luck finding such a beast so I installed 320 square feet of panels on the ground close to the dome and ran all connections under ground into the basement. I live in south central Wisconsin and my experience with solar is not the greatest. My system works fine, but in order for the system to work the sun has to shine. That doesnt happen a lot here until late February or early March. My advice to people in our part of country is to take the money you were going to spend on solar and invest it. Then take your interest money and pay for conventional heat. My dome is 44 feet in diameter and with a 90% efficient furnace and my total heating bill for one season is right around $350.00. My exterior walls are framed with 2x6s. With thicker dome walls Im sure that I could lower my heating costs by quite a bit.

The edges of a geodesic dome arenotall the same length. The angstrom measurements between neighboring carbon atoms in a fullerene are likewise not equal.

Domes come in three Classes (I, II and III). The classification system has to do with laying an equilateral triangle down on a grid of smaller equilateral triangles, lining up corners with corners — either aligning the triangle with the grid (I), turning it 90 degrees to bisect grid triangles (II), or rotating it discretely to have it cut skewly across the grid (III).

20 of these triangles make an icosahedron which is then placed within a circumscribing sphere. The vertexes of the triangles internal points, defined by the grid pattern, define radii with the circumscribing spheres center. By pushing each vertex further out along the segments so defined, until each is made equidistant from the center, an omnitriangulated geodesic sphere is formed (orthonormal projection I think cartographers call this). Again, resulting surface edge lengths are not all the same length. The resulting mesh will always contain 12 sets of 5 triangles organized into pentagons, the rest into hexagons.

The Class I version of the algorithm above always creates 20F^2 surface facets where F=1 gives the icosahedron itself. The external point population will be 10F^2+2. Since points plus facets = edges plus 2 (Euler), you will get 30F^2 edges. F is what Fuller called the Frequency of the geodesic sphere and, in the Class I case, corresponds to the number of grid intervals along any one of the 20 triangle edges.

Note: “buckyballs in the sense of “fullerenes are not omnitriangulated (the edges internal to the 12 pentagons and n hexagons have been removed) and come in infinitely more varieties than the above algorithm allows. The above algorithm is limited to generating point groups with icosahedral symmetry — a minority of the fullerenes are symmetrical in this way, although C60, the most prevalent, is a derivative of the Class I structure.[From Ben Williams] Andrew Norris writes:>

1/ Given a dodecahedron with the edges of length unity, what is>

the radius of the sphere that would enclose this body?>

2/ For the above case, construct each pentagon out of triangles.>

What are the angles required so that new center-node of the>

pentagon just touches the enclosing sphere?This is just a 2 frequency (what-is-referred-to-in-Domebook II-as) triacon geodesic sphere. Funny you should mention that: Back in June when I first discovered this newsgroup, I got reinterested in my old hobby of building mathematical models (and R B Fuller as well). So I went through the laborious process of calculating the strut lengths to build a 2v triacon sphere (what you just described above) out of toothpicks. I have it hanging up over my monitor right now. I wish I could show how I used geometry and such to figure all the necessary lengths out. What I do is start out with a drawing of a dodecahedron projected onto a plane — if it is oriented correctly, you will get a 2-d figure that you can use to deduce the information you want from it. (To get this figure, think of a dodecahedron made out of struts (such as toothpicks) standing on one of its edges on a sheet of paper out in the sun with the sun directly overhead. The shadow on the paper will be this figure.) These are the lengths I derived

E = length of edge of dodecahedron Distance of edge of dodecahedron from center:Er = ( (3 + sqrt(5))/4 ) * E1/2 distance between non-adjacent vertices of face of dodecahedron:b = ( (sqrt(5)+1)/4 ) * Egiven a face of dodecahedron, distance between vertex and opposite edge:h = ( ( sqrt(5 + 2*sqrt(5)) ) / 2 ) * Edistance from center of dodecahedron to one of its vertices (your question 1):R = sqrt((9 + 3*sqrt(5))/8) * Egiven a face of dodecahedron, distance from its center to an edge:l = b/h * Erdistance from center of face of dodecahedron to center of dodecahedron:m = Er/h * Ergiven face of dodecahedron, distance from center to vertex:t = h-llength of one of those struts going from a vertex of dodecahedron up to point above center of face but on the enclosing sphere:S = sqrt(t^2 + (R-m)^2)

Now, to derive the angles of one of those triangles whose side lengths I have just determined, you would need to do this:

This is the angle of the top corners of the 5 triangles which are arched above one of the faces of the dodecahedron. My calculator gives me this angle in degrees: 67.66866319 Notice it is slightly less than the 72 degrees it would be if they were flat on the face of the dodecahedron. Now the other two angles of each of the triangles are simply derived via:

I get a value of 56.1656684 degrees for these two angles.

On Sat, 18 Dec 1993 03:11:53 GMT EDO.EDU>

said:>

Hey all,>

A while back I asked about calculating chord factors. I found the>

equation that without which I dont think I could have done it (by the way I>

was successful)– its a formula for calculating w/any spherical right>

triangle. The formula is sin a = sin A * sin c.>

c / b>

B–a–C>

Im sure youre all familiar w/it, but is there any other equation that would>

be just as helpful. This is by Napiers rules. Here is Napiers circle: c-c A-c B-c b awhere -c means the complement (or 90 degrees – (minus) the arclength measure). A, B are angles, C is the right angle and a, b, c are the sides opposite A, B, and C, respectively. There are two rules:Rule 1:

The sine of any unknown part is equal to the product of the cosines of the two known opposite parts. Or sin = cos * cos of the OPPOSITE parts.

The sine of any unknown part is equal to the product of the tangents of its two known adjacent parts. Or sin = tan * tan of the ADJACENT parts.

Your formula is the same because “c-c=90-c and sin(90-c)=cos(c). Examples: sin(b)=tan(A-c)tan(a) or sin(b)=cos(c-c)cos(B-c).Steve Mather Chris Fearnley

[From an old comp.graphics FAQ, posted by Christopher McRae 14 Apr 1993.]One simple way is to do recursive subdivision into triangles. The base of the recursion is an octahedron, and then each level divides each triangle into four smaller ones. Jon Leech.eduhas posted a nice routine called sphere.c that generates the coordinates. Its available for FTP onftp.ee.lbl.govandweedeater.math.yale.edu.

First choose a tessellation of the sphere (icosa, octa, tetra, elliptical or really just about anything. Second use geometry and spherical trig to determine the surface arclengths for the specific tessellation. Third observe that in any circle a central angle cuts off an arc with the same exact measure. Next, calculate the chord factors: cf = 2sin(theta/2), where theta is the central angle. Finally, multiply each chord factor by the radius of your dome.

Several dome books use the term “alternate to refer to Class I domes (actually it seems Joe Clinton in his paper on domes has determined several methods for class I subdivisions – his method I is the “alternate form). The other popular subdivisioning scheme is based on the rhombic triacontrahedron and is called “triacon.

Hey all, I have some questions to ask about the trigonometry behind geodesic domes. Remarkably, Ive understood what Ive encountered so far, and am well on my way to calculating the the chord factors for a 5v icosa alternate (Why? when I can look it up in a book? Well, I figured Id prove to myself I can.) Ive been able to find those along the direct projection from the icosahedron (are 0.198147431 w/central angle of 11.3716678 degrees, 0.231597598 w/central angle of 13.29940137, and 0.245346417 w/central angle of 14.09281254 accurate beginnings for the outside?

[A big thanks to Steve for calculating and typing in all this for us!!! Im not certain about the results, but he did such a careful job that I suspect they are correct. Im sure someone will check this more carefully. Please let me know of any problems.]

The letters begin at the bottom of the horizontal edges to the triangle, from “a to whatever letter (depending upon the frequency –“a is the very bottom, as well as the sides.) The numbers are the chord factors.

The way I calculated my factors was like this:

I took the frequency (f) and divided the degree of the central angle of that frequency. I then multiplied this number times the number of rows down the row of lines are (check figure.) I took the sine of this number and multiplied it times the sine of the face angle (the angle between the great circles) to find the sine of half of the angle across the row (whew– is this making any sense? =) I then multiply this angle times two and divide by the number of rows down (check second sentence and figure.)

This gives me the angle of the geodesic I want. I then take these numbers and divide by two, take the sine and multiply by two, to find the chord factor. These chord factors are multiplied times the radius to get their lengths.

Here are the equations used:f= frequency n= number of rows A= face angle All numbers are in degrees 2 sin^-1((sin((63.43494885/f)*n))*sinA))(the extra ) shouldnt be there. sorry, my computers acting up, and for some reason I cant delete it.) That was the equation for getting the geodesic. The chord factors are done from those by the following equation:Angle= v 2sin (v/2) 2v icosa: b= 0.6257378602 a= 0.5465330581 3v: c= 0.4240625600 b= 0.4038282455 a= 0.3669588162 4v: d= 0.3212440714 c= 0.3128689301 b= 0.2980880630 a= 0.2759044843 5v: e= 0.2581842991 d= 0.2539357295 c= 0.2465769121 b= 0.2357285878 a= 0.2209776479 6v: f= 0.2156929803 e= 0.2132468999 d= 0.2090569265 c= 0.2029619174 b= 0.1947619676 a= 0.1842631079 7v: g= 0.1851588097 f= 0.1836232302 e= 0.1810112024 d= 0.1772461840 c= 0.1722282186 b= 0.1658460763 a= 0.1579992952 8v: h= 0.1621725970 g= 0.1611459677 f= 0.1594077788 e= 0.1569181915 d= 0.1536238835 c= 0.1494619675 b= 0.1443671359 a= 0.1382831736 9v: i= 0.1442501297 h= 0.1435301153 g= 0.1423149814 f= 0.1405824320 e= 0.1383022055 d= 0.1354375402 c= 0.1319478012 b= 0.1277927679 a= 0.1229389715 10v: j= 0.1298874025 i= 0.1293630412 h= 0.1284801673 g= 0.1272255402 f= 0.1255810391 e= 0.1235242767 d= 0.1210296754 c= 0.1180702193 b= 0.1146200925 a= 0.1106583339 11v: k= 0.1181213623 j= 0.1177276963 i= 0.1170660293 h= 0.1161281074 g= 0.1149025743 f= 0.1133752524 e= 0.1115296266 d= 0.1093476232 c= 0.1068107860 b= 0.1039019434 a= 0.1006074045 12v l= 0.1083071374 k= 0.1080040870 j= 0.1074954030 i= 0.1067757281 h= 0.1058376643 g= 0.1046719125 f= 0.1032675068 e= 0.1016121871 d= 0. c= 0. b= 0. a= 0. 13v m= 0. l= 0. k= 0. j= 0. i= 0. h= 0. g= 0. f= 0. e= 0. d= 0. c= 0. b= 0. a= 0. 14v n= 0. m= 0. l= 0. k= 0. j= 0. i= 0. h= 0. g= 0. f= 0. e= 0. d= 0. c= 0. b= 0. a= 0. 15v o= 0. n= 0. m= 0. l= 0. k= 0. j= 0. i= 0. h= 0. g= 0. f= 0. e= 0. d= 0. c= 0. b= 0. a= 0. Octahedron geodesics: alternate only 2v: b= 1.0000000000 (exact) a= 0.7653668647 3v: c= 0.7071067812 b= 0.6471948470 a= 0.5176380902 4v: d= 0.5411961001 c= 0.5176380902 b= 0.4701651493 a= 0.3901806440 5v: e= 0.4370160244 d= 0.4253582426 c= 0.4032283118 b= 0.3667034258 a= 0.3128689301 6v: f= 0.3360254038 e= 0.3594040993 d= 0.3472963553 c= 0.3280400675 b= 0.2996195680 a= 0.2610523844 7v: g= 0.3146921227 f= 0.3105694162 e= 0.3032077023 d= 0.2918376001 c= 0.2754043542 b= 0.2528648441 a= 0.2239289522

If there is any one Frequently Asked Question online in the Fuller School (an unsupervised collection of mailing lists, Web pages and other online forums relating to R. Buckminster Fuller ) it is “How do I build a geodesic dome?

Trevors web page,How to Build a Geodesic Dome, isnt comprehensive but might get you started.

Fuller did not invent the geodesic dome. It was invented by Walter Bauersfeld of the Zeiss Optical Works in Jena, Germany in 1922, and the first use of it was as a planetarium on the roof of Zeiss that year.

Geodesic Domes and Charts of the Heavensgives further background.

However, Fuller was awarded several patents for the dome. Among them are US patent 2682235 (1954), US patent 288171 (1959), US patent 2905113 (1959), US patent 2914074 (1959), etc. Moreover, Fuller was the one who popularized the technology and pointed out the domes advantages and the reasons for its great strength.

Since Bauersfeld conceived of his structure merely as a planetarium projector (a truly impressive feat) whereas Fuller had a more comprehensive vision of the geometrical and engineering significance of the dome. Which man should win historys designation as The inventor of the dome? Ill let the historians and the pundits debate that one.

The locations of Dome websites changes frequently. The FAQ editor maintains a listing at Kirby Urner maintains one at and the Buckminster Fuller Institute maintains a list at

The list below has been enhanced by contributions from Joe Moore, Gary Lawrence Murphy, Garnet MacPhee, Robert Holder, and Matthew V. J. Whalen. This list is alphabetical. AT&TsAnyWho serviceprovides a way to check for current information about any company including these vendors.

Affordable Dome Ceilings Inc Updated: Oct 2002 Melbourne, FL 32935 Tel: Aluminum Geodesic Domes and Spheres Updated: Oct 2002 2111 Southwest 31st Avenue Edwin OToole Hollywood, FL 33021 Tel: Fax: American Geodesics, Inc. Updated: Oct 2002 1505 Webster St. Ben Rose Richmond VA 23220-2319 Tel: a.k.a. Semispheres Building Systems American Ingenuity, Inc. Updated: Oct 2002 8777 Holiday Springs Road Rockledge, FL 32955-5805 Tel: Planning kit; Video; EPS Foam covered w/concrete Shells Applied Geodesics, Inc. Updated: Nov 2002 P.O. Box 61741 Vancouver, WA. 98660 Tel: Asphalt Sealcoating Products Updated: Oct 2002 2111 Sw 31st Avenue Hollywood, FL 33021 Tel: Astro-Tec Inc Updated: Oct 2002 550 Elm Ridge Avenue Canal Fulton, OH 44614 Tel: 330 854 2209 Charter Industries Inc Dome Strctrs Updated: Oct 2002 5325 Barclay Drive Raleigh, NC 27606 Tel: Common Wealth Solar Svs. Updated: Oct 2002 12433 Autumn Sun Lane Ashland VA, 23005 Tel: Conservatek Updated: Nov 2002 498 Loop 336 E. Conroe, TX 77301 Tel: Fax: Deery Development Inc Updated: Oct 2002 28101 South Yates Avenue Beecher, IL 60401 Tel: Dome Inc Updated: Oct 2002 2550 University Avenue West Saint Paul, MN 55114 Tel: Domelite of Arizona Updated: Oct 2002 Phoenix, AZ 85034 Tel: Domes America, Inc. Updated: Oct 2002 126 S. Villa Ave. Bob Casey Villa Park, IL 60181 Tel: Fax: (630) 993 1809 Domes Northwest Updated: Nov 2002 335 Vedelwood Drive Sandpoint, Idaho 83864 Tel: Domtec International Updated: Oct 2002 4355 N Haroldsen Drive Idaho Falls, ID 83401 Tel: Econ-O-Dome Updated: Oct 2002 RR 1, Box 295B Sullivan, IL 61951 Tel: 1-888-DOME-LUV (1-) Energy Structures, Inc. Updated: Oct 2002 893 Wilson Avenue Joe & Kevin Frawley St.Paul, MN 55106 Tel: Fax: Fourth Dimension Housing Updated: Oct 2002 190 N. Livingston Bay Rd. Camano Island, WA 98282 Tel: 1- Geocon Manufacturing Inc Updated: Oct 2002 1502 Antelope Road White City, OR 97503 Tel: 541 826 4545 Geodesic Domes and Homes Co. Updated: Oct 2002 P.O. Box 575 Larry Knackstedt Ray Howard Whitehouse, TX 75791 Tel: Fax: (903) 839 7228 (800) 825-2389 email: GeoDomes Woodworks Updated: Oct 2002 6876 Indiana Avenue, Suite L Bob Davies & Glenn Van Doren Riverside, CA 92501 Tel: Fax: Home Planning Guide; Wood kits Geometrica, Inc. Updated: Nov 2002 908 Town & Country Blvd., Suite 330 Houston, TX 77024 Tel: Fax: Geo Tech Systems. Inc. Updated: Nov 2002 Corporate Office 775 Bunker Hill Rd. South Tamworth, NH 03883 Tel: Hexadome Updated: Nov 2002 Glencor International PO Box 519 Mount Compass South Australia 5210 Tel: (08) 8556 8701 Good Karma Domes Updated: Nov 2002 James Lynch 3531 S.W. 42nd street Oklahoma City, OK 73119 Tel: Growing Spaces Updated: Nov 2002 P.O. Box 5518 Pagosa Springs, CO 81147 Tel: Hexadome Updated: Oct 2002 Gene Hopster El Cajon, CA 92020 Tel: 619 440 0434 Key Dome Inc. Updated: Oct 2002 10393 Southwest 186th Peter Vanderklaaw Miami, FL 33157 Tel: [From Bruce Carroll]: If your looking just for plans/blueprints, try Key Domes, in Miama, FL (305)-665-3541. They have 3 different types of plans (foam/concrete, plywood on 2X4/6, and plywood panels). KCS (KingDomes) Updated: Oct 2002 P.O. Box 980427 Einar Thorstein Houston, TX 77098 Tel: Fax: EDC Booklet (European design, 163 solutions, kits, math) Littlewood Geodesic Domes Updated: Nov 2002 3814a – 53a Street Wetaskiwin, Alberta Canada T9A 2T7 Tel: (780) 352-2569 or 497-0513 Monolithic Constructors, Inc. Updated: Oct 2002 177 Dome Park Place Tel (972)483-7423 – Fax (972)483-6662 Italy, TX 76651 Tel: Fax: Video; Free brochure; Concrete Domes Natural Spaces Domes Updated: Nov 2002 37955 Bridge Road, Dennis Johnson North Branch, MN 55056 Tel: Fax: Local Phone: 651 674 4292 “All About Domes; Video; Wood kits; Dome building classes [Tom Dosemagen] Inquire about their “All About Domes book. Dennis has developed two different hub and strut systems for constructing domes. The people at Natural Spaces, who have been in the dome business for over 20 years, feel that the best way to insulate a dome is with fiberglass insulation. Natural Habitat Domes Updated: Oct 2002 N4981 County Road S Plymouth, WI 53073 Tel: 920 893 5308 New Age Construction Co. Updated: Nov 2002 13288-T Domes Ridge Duncanville, AL 35456 Tel: Northface Unverified 999 Harrison Court Bruce Hamilton Berkeley, CA 94710 Tel: Fax: Oregon Dome, Inc. Updated: May 1999 25331 Jeans Rd. Roger & Linda Boothe Veneta, OR 97487 Tel: Phone: (800) 572-8943 Pacific Domes Updated: Nov 2002 247 Granite Street Ashland, OR 97520 Tel: 1- 1- P.D. Structures Updated: Nov 2002 180-4 Poplar St. Robert Gray Rochester, NY 14620 Tel: Pillow Domes Pond-Brook Products Unverified P.O. Box 301 Gladys Payne Franklin Lakes, NJ 07412 Tel: Fax: Hexa-Pent Dome Plans Precision Structures LLC Updated: Oct 2002 2565 Potter St. Eugene, OR 97405 Tel: Fax: Book; “Professional Dome Plans; See Mother Earth News, 1-90 A book of detailed shop drawings and formulas for building wood framed, 3v icosa, panelized geodesic domes. Shadow Wood Domes Inc Updated: Nov 2002 15250 South Paradise Lane Mulino, OR 97042 Tel: 503 829 6370 AnyWho Categories: Dome Structures Shelter Systems-OL Updated: Nov 2002 224 Walnut St. Bob Gillis Menlo Park, CA 95060 Tel: Fax: Large dome tents, greenhouses, etc. Solardome Industries Ltd. Updated: Nov 2002 P.O. Box 767 Southampton, SO16 7UA United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 23 80 767676 Starnet International Corp. Updated: Nov 2002 200 Hope St. Longwood, FL 32750 Tel: Fax: Strombergs Chicks & Gamebirds Updated: Nov 2002 100 York Street Pine River, 4, MN 56474 Tel: Fax: Starplate struts to build a dome shed/greenhouse up to 14 diam Synapse Domes (name may be defunct) Updated: Nov 2002 Marshall Brasil and Scott Sims Brasel & Sims Construction Co 1290 N 2 St Lander, WY 82520 This company may involve the principles from Synapse Domes. I have not been able to verify. No websites could be found. Temcor Updated: Nov 2002 PO Box 48008 150 West Walnut Street, Suite 150 Gardena, CA 90248 Don Richter Tel: within US Large aluminum commercial domes Timberline Geodesics Inc Updated: Nov 2002 2015 Blake Street Robert M. Singer Berkeley, CA 94704 Tel: Fax: Catalog; Video Tape; Wood kits Toll-Free: (1-800-DOME-HOME) Ultraflote Corp. Updated: Nov 2002 8558-T Katy